There was a recent patch in Gems of War adding Challenge tiers. It's seven battles per tier and when you complete all seven, you get a bonus.
The first tier they added, so I think it's designated Tier II because I had previously completed all Challenge levels, is Glory. It's 25 points per battle, plus a bonus of 250 at the end.
That's 175 total for the individual battles and 375 total for completing the entire tier.
The next tier -- Tier III -- is gold. You get, I think, 1000 gold per battle, plus 10,000 for completing the tier.
The one after that -- Tier IV -- is traitstones. The one after that -- Tier V -- is keys.
I'm still figuring those out.
It looks like you get five major traitstones per battle and three arcane at the end. They do not match the arcane traitstones for the faction in question. I don't know what the pattern is.
You seem to get one key per battle and three Event Keys for the bonus.
Tier VI is Ingots. You can get 2 blue ingots per battle, plus 3 purple when you complete all seven battles.
Tier VII is Chaos Shards. You get 10 per battle and 100 for the tier, for a total of 170.
Tier VIII is Jewels. You get 20 per battle, plus 10 diamonds for the tier bonus.
Tier IX is more Ingots. You get 1 gold ingot for completing each battle. You get 2 Mythic ingots for completing the tier.